The first major area of research in the economics department is industrial economics and competition policy. The professors at the Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE) actively pursue research in competition economics, using different methods (theory, empirical, experimental). Key issues are areas of traditional competition policy (anti-cartel policy, analysis of abusive behavior, vertical restraints and mergers), regulatory policy (network industries including telecom and energy), health economics, media economics and two-sided markets, and the long-run analysis of relevant institutions (e.g., cartel law, patents and property rights). The second central research area is applied international and monetary economics. Main issues in this research area are European Integration, monetary policy (especially in the Euro area), financial crises, stability and regulation of financial markets and financial intermediation.